Category: Saudi Arabia

Liquid Gold vs Digital Gold: Why Bitcoin Beats Oil in the Current Climate

Liquid Gold vs Digital Gold: Why Bitcoin Beats Oil in the Current ClimateExtreme volatility. Sudden loss of value. A purported store of value. An economic hedge. An alternative to gold. On the face of it, bitcoin and oil have a lot in common. Both markets have been buffeted by the covid-19 economic downturn, but while bitcoin has stabilized, oil keeps plummeting. What does “digital gold” have that […]

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G20 Kicks Off 2020 Discussion on Cryptocurrencies — Urges Countries to Apply FATF Standards

G20 Kicks Off 2020 Discussion on Cryptocurrencies — Urges Countries to Apply FATF StandardsThe G20 finance ministers and central bank governors had their first 2020 meeting this weekend in Saudi Arabia. They discussed cryptocurrencies and stablecoins, and issued a statement urging countries to implement the cryptocurrency standards set by the Financial Action Task Force. They were also informed that the Financial Stability Board will soon issue its crypto […]

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Government Hates Crypto Because It Empowers the People, Not Because It’s Used for Crime

Government Hates Crypto Because It Empowers the People, Not Because It's Used for CrimeA recent article from MIT Technology Review has leveraged a somewhat sensationalist headline to stir up fear about bitcoin and crypto. The article, written about a “hidden” government weapon to be deployed against Bitcoin, references September 3 senate subcommittee testimony by Washington D.C. consulting firm Financial Integrity Network. In the testimony, Vice President of the […]

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Sorry, I Don’t Want to Pay for More Bombs: Bitcoin as a Hedge Against Funding War

Sorry, I Don't Want to Pay for More Bombs: Bitcoin as a Hedge Against Funding WarAfter nearly two decades of U.S.-led coalition bombs falling on the Middle East, peace in the region still has not been achieved. Now the United States is once again bolstering military forces, this time in Saudi Arabia. Meanwhile, taxpayers in multiple countries are being forced to pay for these ill-fated and unethical campaigns, with little […]

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How They Will Attack Bitcoin: The Hypocritical Shock Campaign of US Monetary Policy

How They Will Attack Bitcoin: The Hypocritical Shock Campaign of US Monetary PolicyOn July 16, U.S. Department of the Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin gave a short press briefing discussing cryptocurrencies and the pressing need for regulation. A 28-minute slodge of alphabet agency soup, studded with calculated mentions of “terrorism” nearly every minute, casual observers were left confused. Are we talking about crypto or biological weapons of mass […]

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Bahrain’s Central Bank Issues Draft Crypto Regulations

Bahrain’s Central Bank Issues Draft Crypto RegulationsThe Central Bank of Bahrain (CBB) has prepared draft rules designed to regulate digital assets and certain aspects of the country’s crypto industry. The move aims to establish Bahrain as a regional leader in the fintech sector and restore its role as a major banking hub in the Persian Gulf.   Also read: New Bitcoin […]

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Crypto Exchange Works With Regulators to Develop Legal Frameworks for Arab States

Crypto Exchange Works With Regulators to Develop Legal Frameworks for Arab StatesFollowing the statement by Saudi Arabia declaring cryptocurrency illegal, the largest crypto exchange in the Middle East and North Africa is working with regulators across the region to develop crypto regulations. Bitoasis confirmed its platform is unaffected by the Saudi Arabian crypto stance. Also read: Yahoo! Japan Confirms Entrance Into the Crypto Space Bitoasis Working With […]

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Bitcoin Illegal: Saudi Arabia Monetary Authority

Bitcoin Ilegal: Saudi Arabia Monetary AuthorityKingdom of Saudi Arabia (المملكة العربية السعودية) regulators issued a statement this week through its monetary authority. Cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin are illegal in the country. Citing “negative consequences” and “high risk,” the government believes it must protect subjects from themselves.   Also read: Report: 15,000 Twitter Crypto Scam Giveaway Bots Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority […]

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Riyadh Municipality Partners with IBM to Develop Blockchain for Government Services

The Riyadh municipality in Saudi Arabia has partnered with IBM to design blockchain solutions to improve services in the government sector.

Riyadh Municipality, Saudi Arabia, has partnered with IBM to jointly develop a strategy to streamline government services and transactions on а blockchain, news outlet reported July 11.

The move was made in accordance with an authoritative decision of the Government of Saudi Arabia to work on improving the quality of municipal services for customers and integrate leading technologies into services as part of the Saudi Vision 2030 program.

The Saudi Vision 2030 program is an agenda for economic development and the diversification of the Saudi economy away from oil, which comprises between 30-40 of the country’s GDP. First introduced in 2016 by Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman, the agenda also aims to develop infrastructure, healthcare, tourism, education, as well as military spending and manufacturing.

Backed by main government departments, Riyadh Municipality, IBM, and Saudi tech firm Elm Company will arrange workshops to determine which services can be upgraded using blockchain.

IBM will subsequently develop the first blockchain solution at the municipal level, while Elm will implement the technology into services provided by the government. Tarek Zarg El Aioun, Country General Manager at IBM Saudi Arabia, told ITP that IBM “believes” that blockchain technology “has the ability to change the world in the same way [as] the Internet while redefining how business and transactions happen.” He added:

“Through the collaboration between Riyadh Municipality, Elm and IBM, we will be able to help the Saudi government reimagine and transform the way in which services are provided to citizens, residents, businesses, and visitors. It is a strategic step towards supporting the objectives of Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030.”

In May, the government of Saudi Arabia conducted a “blockchain bootcamp” session focused on building Ethereum smart contracts and decentralized applications (DApps). Authorities described the event as part of its plan to create a “digital environment” under its 2020 “action plan and objectives.”

The Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority (SAMA) partnered with Ripple in February this year to provide support for Ripple’s international payments technology to banks in the country. The pilot program will allow participating KSA banks to use Ripple’s enterprise software solution xCurrent for cross-border payments.

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Banks and Cryptocurrencies Global Evaluation: The Middle East

It’s definitely more red than green.

Arab markets were flooded with new investors in April after an Islamic scholar announced cryptocurrency is halal under Sharia law. The announcement settled contradicting statements issued by several other Islamic experts, but there are still conflicting interpretations of Sharia’s allowance of virtual currencies among Muslim leaders.  

The mufti’s announcement opened crypto markets to potentially 1.6 billion new customers, but it is certain that Middle Eastern governments will play a central role in the development of the crypto industry in order to ensure individuals and institutions adhere to Sharia law.

Sharia law places strict guidelines on economic activity whereby value must be attributed to real, physical assets. The highly contested religious law that governs the Islamic finance sector also prohibits market speculation and collection of interest on loans.

Muslim entrepreneurs, investors, and governments are intent on being leaders in the competitive global marketplace. As many advocate to replace the U.S. dollar as the global reserve currency, Bitcoin and nationalized cryptocurrencies may finally offer Muslim countries economic stability and leeway in Western politics.

It’s an unlikely coincidence that the Islamic Council on Sharia Finance broadly legalized gold ownership for investments around the same time that OPEC and Middle Eastern countries began moving away from the U.S. PetroDollar system in 2016.

Iran, which no longer recognizes or uses the U.S. dollar, and Turkey both announced plans to release government issued digital currencies following the pre-sale of Venezuela’s national, oil-backed currency Petro, earlier this year.

In fact, President Nicolas Maduro of Venezuela called on all 14 OPEC nations to develop a platform for trading oil-backed cryptocurrencies. Just as Venezuela launched its own cryptocurrency to circumvent U.S. sanctions, other oil-producing countries have hinted at abandoning the PetroDollar system that has been operating in the Middle East for over 40 years — threatening the global supremacy of the U.S. dollar.

The following assessment of cryptocurrency regulation in the Middle East is a part of a larger series of pieces evaluating regulation of the flourishing global fintech industry. Part one of the series looks at activity in Asian hotspots like Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan, and how governments are facilitating or hindering growth. Part two examines crypto regulation and the critical attitudes held by many European leaders. Part three analyzes the varying attitudes of Western leaders on the disruptive new technology, and how regulatory agencies in the Americas are preparing for mainstream adoption of cryptocurrency. Part four assess how African countries are embracing the economically- and politically-liberating force of cryptocurrency and Blockchain.

The list below is based on thorough news research, but should in no way be considered complete. If you have more detailed information on banks and the crypto relationship in your country, we encourage you to share it in the comment section.

The views and opinions expressed here are solely those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Every investment and trading move involves risk, and you should conduct your own research when making a decision.


Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, a key player in the U.S. PetroDollar system, has continuously sold off its foreign exchange reserves ever since the price of oil plummeted in 2014. Saudi regulators are taking a close look at cryptocurrencies, but have yet to propose regulations. Many say an outright ban is unlikely.

The Saudi Ministry of Communications and Information Technology announced the agency completed a three-day “Blockchain bootcamp” in May as part of its plan to create a “digital environment” to leverage the kingdom’s untapped Information and Communications Technology (ICT) potential. The ministry partnered with Blockchain technology company ConsenSys for the event, and focused on Ethereum smart contracts and building decentralized applications.

The Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority also partnered with Ripple in February and launched a

pilot program that will provide cross-border payment technology to banks in the kingdom. The program is the first of its kind to be coordinated by a central bank, and will be accompanied by a regulatory sandbox, program management and training.


The Omani Blockchain Symposium, held at the end of last year, was the country’s largest business gathering, with nearly every government cabinet member in attendance, as well as 700 attendees from the private sector.

The Central Bank of Oman, as well as the Central Monetary authority, promoted the successful event and indicated that the government will aid in providing the technological infrastructure to promote the implementation of blockchain technology in Oman.

The Blockchain Solutions and Services Company (BSS), a government entity and initiative of the Blockchain Symposium, is reportedly collaborating with the Oman Banks Association, other government agencies and local businesses to develop regulations for the country’s digital transformation.

BankDhofar is the country’s first bank to join BankChain, an international banking community dedicated to the research and development of blockchain solutions. The initiative is part of BankDhofar’s plans to digitize a range of banking services to ensure accuracy, efficiency, and security to customers.


In January 2017, the governor of Iran’s central bank announced the U.S. dollar would no longer be used in the country in response to President Trump’s temporary travel ban. The country’s first crypto exchange, BTXCapital, stated that Iran had the potential to become a major market in the future due to the exit of the American dollar — although purchasing Bitcoin in the country remained notably difficult at the time.

The Iranian government seemingly held positive views toward Bitcoin when the Iranian cyberspace authority — the High Council of Cyberspace — first announced plans last year to collaborate with the Central Bank of Iran to publish a report on cryptocurrencies. But the central bank has since issued a statement claiming it never recognized Bitcoin as a legal tender, and banned domestic banks and other financial institutions from dealing with cryptocurrencies in April.

However, the Iranian Information and Communications Technology minister stated the ban on cryptocurrencies does not preclude the central bank from developing a domestic cryptocurrency, and that an experimental model of a state-issued digital currency was ready.

The ban on cryptocurrencies preceded U.S. sanctions imposed on Iran in May, and is seen as an attempt to protect the country’s struggling financial institutions and depreciating national currency. Iran’s state-issued digital currency parallels Venezuela’s Petro, which is used to circumvent international sanctions.


Turkish authorities have sent mixed signals to the cryptocurrency industry in the past, but are following the lead of other Middle Eastern countries with plans to release a national cryptocurrency.

The Turkish government took a harsh stance on Bitcoin last November, when lawmakers of the Directorate of Religious Affairs stated cryptocurrencies were “not compatible” with Islam because of the speculative nature of the market and lack of government control. 

But in February, a report by the deputy chair of Turkey’s Nationalist Movement Party not only proposed regulations for the market, but also mentioned the possibility of a national Bitcoin, called the TurkCoin.

The Turkish Bitcoin exchange BTCTurk, which opened in 2013, terminated operations in 2016 after local banks abruptly discontinued services and closed accounts associated with the exchange. BTCTurk has since reopened, along with the Turkish exchange

However, domestic exchanges are limited to Bitcoin and Ether, and customers are forced to use English exchanges to access altcoins. BTCTurk’s history is exemplary of the varying responses and divisions between financial institutions and the government’s acceptance of Bitcoin. Although cryptocurrencies are far from mainstream adoption, a number of Turkish businesses and real estate companies accept Bitcoin as payment.

On a separate note, various blockchain projects in Turkey have garnered interest from individuals who wish to see cryptocurrency become more accessible. The Blockchain and Bitcoin Conference held in Istanbul in March gathered global leaders to discuss the development and legislative regulation of the sector.


The Central Bank of Iraq prevents the use and promotion of Bitcoin, according to a statement by an economic expert last December. Furthermore, those found using Bitcoin may be prosecuted under pre-existing Anti-Money Laundering (AML) laws.

Russia’s Federal Security Service claims to have prevented 25 of 29 terrorist attacks coordinated from Syria and Iraq in 2017, and that “terrorists love cryptocurrency.” The Russian authorities allegedly discovered 100 cases where virtual money was used to financed illicit activities. However, less than 1% of Bitcoin-related transactions between 2013 and 2016 were discovered to be funding illegal activities, according to research by the Center on Sanctions and Illegal Finance (CSIF).


Code to Inspire, a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing Afghan women’s economic and social standing in the country’s tech industry, is providing resources to women to learn how to code and design mobile apps and software. CIT’s mission will allow women to have a career in IT, participate in the global economy, and become financially independent by using Bitcoin.

However, the lack of domestic exchanges in Afghanistan marks a common issue with Bitcoin’s inability to reach remote, underdeveloped nations. The lack of technological infrastructure, local exchanges and stable wifi connections makes trading and using Bitcoin in Afghanistan difficult.

United Arab Emirates

The Prime Minister of the UAE and ruler of Dubai announced the launch of the UAE Blockchain Strategy 2021 in April, with ambitious plans to be the world’s first blockchain-powered government. The UAE plan will focus on citizen and resident happiness, government efficiency, legislation and global entrepreneurship.

The strategy aims to have 50% of federal transactions being conducted using blockchain technology by 2021, which includes moving to paperless documentation of visa applications, bill payments and license renewals with blockchain technology, which could potentially save $11 billion annually.

The most recent development of the Emirates’ blockchain strategy is Dubai’s partnership with IBM to create a blockchain business registry to ensure businesses operate under its jurisdiction. The government announced the initiative in May, and says it will streamline the process of business operations, digitized documentation of activity and assurance of regulatory compliance.

The technology arm of the government, Smart Dubai, is tasked with facilitating digital implementation in the city and conducts research to determine services that could benefit from blockchain technology. The government entity, which is involved in various initiatives, will propose necessary legislation to ensure Dubai’s “smart transformation,” and aid mega projects developing in the city.

The Dubai Land Department (DLD) launched a blockchain-powered system to record real estate contracts, secure financial transactions and connect tenants and landowners with property-related billers, such as electrical and telecommunications utilities. The government agency, which is tasked with overseeing real estate purchases and approving contracts, says the initiative is exemplary of the country’s blockchain strategy to consolidate government services on a single platform.

In contrast to the government’s embrace of blockchain, the legality of using Bitcoin is not clear because pre-existing regulations do not recognize virtual currencies. However, the government and central bank of the UAE announced earlier this year that regulatory framework for Bitcoin usability and exchanges is coming in the near future.

The central bank previously rejected proposals for licensing trading exchanges, and the UAE Securities and Commodities Authority voiced concern over the high risk of ICOs. But after the announcement of future regulations for the crypto industry, the government and central bank seem adamant on federal oversight to ensure cryptocurrency doesn’t move to underground markets.

Meanwhile, investors in Dubai and the UAE continue to buy, sell and trade cryptocurrencies, despite the lack of local exchanges.

The supposed first-ever Sharia-compliant cryptocurrency, Onegram, launched in Dubai in May 2017 and is backed by actual gold reserves. Because each unit of value is backed by physical gold, speculation and market volatility are tightly controlled.

Notably, a gold investment and trading firm in Dubai is the first company licensed to store virtual currency in the Middle East. The company established a “cold storage vault” for clients to store Bitcoin and Ethereum. The secure vault holds cryptocurrencies in a physical form and are detached from networks in order to address the concerns investors have over online wallet-hacking and malware.

A Dubai-based entrepreneur, Com Mirza, launched the Islam-friendly “Bitcoin of the Middle East,” or Habibi Coin in late 2017. The asset-backed and interest-free Habibi Coin is a monumental advancement for Muslims who previously had difficulty buying homes and investing in other assets. Com Mirza claims to be planning a $100 million USD ICO, and will allow investors to purchase property directly on the Habibi Coin platform.


Kuwait’s Ministry of Finance banned the central bank and financial institutions from trading and dealing with Bitcoin in late 2017, due to market volatility and consumer risk. Other legal authorities in Kuwait indicate that online trading is prohibited by the country’s e-commerce laws, and Kuwaiti law does not recognize Bitcoin as a currency.


The central bank of Qatar issued a warning to banks in the country in February, urging others to deny accounts to crypto exchanges and traders, and that failure to comply with the request may result in legal recourse under pre-existing law.


Cryptocurrency is providing relief to the humanitarian crisis in Syria, where the United Nations World Food Program is using the Ethereum Blockchain to transfer vouchers to refugees. The successful project sent funds to buy food to 10,000 refugees and the U.N. plans to extend the program to 100,000 people in Jordan as well.

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